Dwellings are easily infested with bed bugs as they could transfer to new places with the personal items of human they feed upon. Bed board is always the first choice for bed bugs to inhabit. They feed on human blood, usually at night. Their bites can result in several health impacts, such as skin rashes, allergies, and psychological effects. Once bed bugs are observed, we have to eliminate them immediately.
Breeding location: indoor area such as mattress, clothes, cracks on floor and wall.
Sign of existence: tiny eggshells, peels of nymph, dark red faeces, smelly odor
Size: 4 – 5 mm
Life cycle: 9 – 18 months
Reproductive period: 6- 7 generations per year
Coptotermes is the most common species of termite in dwellings in Hong Kong. Owing to their wood-eating habits, they can do significant damage to the wooden products and furniture, and even infest other building materials such as brick, concrete or underground cable. In some cases outside Hong Kong, the buildings were condemned due to the infestation of termites. The yearly damage caused by termites is much more costed than that caused by the natural disasters such as earthquake, fire and windstorm.
There are several signs and signals upon the infestation of termites. If pairs of large black ant or groups of flying insects was found indoors, the termites are about to infest; If the floor and wall were found cocked or hollowed, or if paths with wood dust and faeces were found on wall, the termites have been already infested.
Cockroaches are an ancient group and have existed since 350 million years ago. They are the earth’s most tenacious species which could survive and live in a wide range of environments. In other words, they are extremely difficult to be eliminated. American cockroach and German cockroach are the most common species of cockroach in Hong Kong.
They are species of small cockroach, typically about 0.5 inch long. They breed in warm and wet environment, such as kitchens, washrooms or patios. They are social and nocturnal, and they love scavenging in the evening. However, German cockroach occasionally appears by day, especially if the population is crowded or has been disturbed.
They have the largest body size among all common cockroach species, their average length is around 1.5 inch. They also have a pair of strong wings to let them fly under low pressure. They love to stay in dark and wet environment and can be always found in both indoors & outdoors, water drains, garbage rooms, etc.
There are many kinds of wood borers. They can decompose the wood and bamboo into powder and dig holes with different sizes on the timbers. Wood borers are a species of beetles, the average size of the adult is around 0.25 inch. The colour is brown or black. Adults will lay eggs in cracks of wooden objects, floorboards, and timbers. Once hatch, the nymphs burrow through the timber, unstoppably feed on wood and make the wooden objects hollowed. This will damage the structure and cause dangers. Although their destructiveness is slightly less than that of termites, wood borers often infest the less-moistly wood which is not easy to identify.
Dust mites are especially active in summer due to the hot and humid weather in Hong Kong. Two most common species are American dust mite and European dust mite. They are known for causing an allergy. Due to their extremely small size, they are barely visible by human eyes, and they may be inhaled into the human body to cause respiratory diseases, such as nasal allergy and asthma.
Breeding location: Unventilated and dusty environment
Life cycle: egg, pupa, larva (2 stages), adult
Size: Only visible under microscope
Appearance: 4 pairs of legs, hairy and thick wrinkles
The binomial name is Lepisma saccharinum. The common name, silverfish, derives from its silvery light grey colour and fish-like appearance of movements. It is a nocturnal household insect, and it avoids light. Silverfish feeds on the objects containing polysaccharides and starches, for example, books, papers, leather, synthetic fabrics, bread, etc.
There are around 370 kinds of silverfish in the world. Most of them are long-lived, adult pests may live for up to 4 years.
Size: 12-18mm long
Appearance: Long and thin with two long cerci and one terminal filament at the tip, body covered by silvery scales
Habitat: Dark and moist environment, such as wardrobe, bookshelf, and kitchen cabinet
Food: Polysaccharides and starches, such as books, papers, synthetic fabrics, bread, etc.
Prevent of silverfish
Clean thoroughly the wore clothe.
Place moth-repellent, smelly or smell-less, inside the wardrobe.
Once slight pests are found, spray pesticides at the wall-corners, cracks, wardrobes, the bottom and back of book shelfs.
Eliminate all silverfishes and their eggs hidden in the gaps of the clothes by washing, sun-drying and ironing. Seek for dry-cleaning service from laundry if necessary.
Store separately the rough clothes, the sweaters, and the silk clothes in different boxes
Seek for professional pest control service company for help if necessary